what is water treatment?
Water treatment is the process that improves the quality of water to make it appropriate for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. This treatment is crucial to human health and allows humans to benefit from both drinking and irrigation use.
Water is the most crucial compound for life on Earth, and having drinkable water is a key worldwide concern for the twenty-first century. All living things require clean, uncontaminated water as a basic requirement. Water covers more than 71 percent of the earth’s surface, but only around 1% of it is drinkable according to international standards due to various contaminations . Waste water discharge from industries, agricultural pollution, municipal wastewater, environmental and global changes are the main sources of water contamination. Even trace levels of heavy metals, dyes, and microbes are hazardous to human health, aquatic systems, and the environment.
To address water scarcity issues, it is required to recover water from current wastewater or develop alternate water sources for human consumption
Domestic and industrial wastewater are the two types of wastewater. Domestic wastewater contains sewage, bacteria, viruses, hazardous and non-toxic organisms, sanitary outputs, rubbish, detergents, and other solid and liquid discharges from non-manufacturing processes.